Things look quiet here. But I've been doing a lot of blogging at
dan.langille.org because I prefer WordPress now.
Not all my posts there are FreeBSD related.
I am in the midst of migrating The FreeBSD Diary over to WordPress
(and you can read about that here).
Once the migration is completed, I'll move the FreeBSD posts into the
new FreeBSD Diary website.
installing an alternative ftp daemon - proftpd10 November 1999
I decided to install another ftp server. Mainly because I was having a small
problem with the default ftp server which I didn't want to spend the time fixing.
The problem was with chroot. If I placed a user in /etc/ftpchroot, they
were unable to use the ls command. I understand this is because the ls
executable must be placed within the chroot tree. That makes sense. However, I
didn't want to do that. I also liked the idea that proftpd does not depend
upon any external executables. It is entirely independent.
# cd /usr/ports/ftp/proftpd
su: cd: /usr/ports/ftp/proftpd: No such file or directory
Oh oh! Why don't I have that? I checked the http://www.freebsd.org/ports/ page to see if
proftpd was listed in the ftp section. It was. So my ports were out of date.
Time to fix that. It was pretty easy. I used the instructions found in Updating the ports collection. When doing this, I could have
modified my ports-supfile and commented out everything except the ftp section. But I
didn't. I wanted all my ports updated.
So I started again:
# cd /usr/ports/ftp/proftpd
Again, I started getting errors. This time it was complaining about not being
able to get autoconf-2.12.tar.gz I think. Hmmm, where does that live? A quick:
# locate autoconf
shows it's from /usr/ports/devel/. A quick check again at http://www.freebsd.org/ports/ finds that the
current version is 2.13. So my ports are out of date. I had not been updating the
devel directory. So I uncommented that line from the ports-supfile and ran cvsup
again. After that, I started with the install again:
# make install
Of note was this output from the install:
===> Installing for proftpd-1.2.0p8
As of proftpd 1.2.0p5 and later, you need to edit /etc/pam.conf to add
support for ftp. To do so, add the following two lines to this file:
ftp auth required pam_unix.so try_first_pass
ftp account required pam_unix.so try_first_pass
===> Generating temporary packing list
===> Compressing manual pages for proftpd-1.2.0p8
===> Registering installation for proftpd-1.2.0p8
I'm not sure if this will be relevant or not. It turned out it was.
The main configuration file is /usr/local/etc/proftpd.conf.
I was running
this daemon standalone. That's the default configuration. So I commented out
the line in /etc/inetd.conf for ftp. Don't forget to HUP inetd
(like I did):
# killall -HUP inetd
After making changes to the config file so as to enable anonymous ftp (see config file and below), I started the server:
Then I checked to see if it was running:
# ps -auwx | grep ftp
Hmmm, there's nothing there. Time to check for error messages:
# tail /var/log/messages
Nov 10 23:14:20 ducky proftpd: attempted bind to 0.0.0.0, port 21
Nov 10 23:14:20 ducky proftpd: bind() failed in
inet_create_connection(): Address already in use
Nov 10 23:14:20 ducky proftpd: Check the ServerType directive to
ensure you are configured correctly.
With my initial testing, I was unable to connect with any user/password combination.
Most annoying. Checking the messages again, I find this:
Nov 10 23:25:35 ducky proftpd: USER dan: incorrect password from
fred.yourdomain.org [10.0.0.1] to 10.0.0.2:21
Hmmm, but my password is correct. I dunno. But anonymous ftp is working.
Eventually I remembered the bit about PAM from the install process and added those bits
to the PAM configuration file. But that didn't fix it either. At this point, I
went to bed.
The problem was PAM
After posting a message to the firstname.lastname@example.org
I found the solution. It appears that my version of FreeBSD does not support
PAM. What's PAM you say? If you check /etc/pam.conf, you'll see
this: Pluggable Authentication Modules. And from man pam:
PAM Is a system of libraries that handle the authentica-
tion tasks of applications (services) on the system. The
library provides a stable general interface (Application
Programming Interface - API) that privilege granting pro-
grams (such as login(1) and su(1)) defer to to perform
standard authentication tasks.
The first thing you might want to do is add an anonymous ftp user. Look at http://hamster.wibble.org/proftpd/ for the
configuration options. Here is more or less my anonymous settings:
DirFakeUser on ftpd
DirFakeGroup on ftpd
### We want clients to be able to login with "anonymous" as well as "ftp"
UserAlias anonymous ftp
### Limit the maximum number of anonymous logins
### It is wise when making an 'ftp' user that you either block its
### ability to login either via /etc/login.access or my giving it
### an invalid shell.
### Uncomment this if the 'ftp' user you made has an invalid shell
### We want 'welcome.msg' displayed at login, and '.message' displayed
### in each newly chdired directory.
### Limit WRITE everywhere in the anonymous chroot
<Limit READ DELE RMD RETR MKD>
<Limit WRITE CWD>
One of the things which proftpd does, as do other daemons, is allow you
to have virtual ftp servers. Much like virtual websites in apache, it allows a
single host to respond with different files for different server names. See virtual ftp servers - proftpd for more detail.
I wanted to ensure that proftpd started at boot time. So I created
# cat /usr/local/etc/rc.d/proftpd.sh
/bin/mkdir -p /var/run/proftpd
if [ -x /usr/local/libexec/proftpd ]; then
/usr/local/libexec/proftpd && echo -n ' proftpd'
Remember to set the permissions correctly or it won't be executed:
chmod 711 proftpd.sh
Here is a non-anonymous user. It assumes you have a user and group
called Susan. Uploads will be done in the user's home directory.
Common shell problem
The login I created for Susan was an ftp-only login. She is not allowed to use
telnet or ssh. Therefore, when I created her, I assigned a shell of /nonexistent.
But when I tested the connection I encountered a slight problem:
$ ftp ftp.mydomain.org
Connected to ftp.mydomain.org.
Name (ftp.mydomain.org:dan): susan
331 Password required for susan.
530 Login incorrect.
ftp: Login failed.
In the logs for ftp.mydomain.org I found this
- USER susan (Login failed): Invalid shell.
There are two problems here. First, I gave Susan a login shell of /nonexistent.
Second, this shell is not listed within /etc/shells. It is the
latter issue which results in the above error message. For more information about
nologin, please see this article.
To correct this problem, I changed Susan's login shell to /sbin/nologin
after first ensuring this shell existed:
# ls -l /sbin/nologin
-r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 1990 Dec 6 05:57 /sbin/nologin
And here is what was in /etc/shells after I added the /sbin/nologin entry.
# $FreeBSD: src/etc/shells,v 188.8.131.52 1999/08/29 14:19:02 peter Exp $
# List of acceptable shells for chpass(1).
# Ftpd will not allow users to connect who are not using
# one of these shells.
After fixing the above, I found that Susan's login worked and resulted in the following