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Postfix - virtual domains 6 November 2002
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This article concentrates on the installation and configuration of Postfix. The emphasis is on the FreeBSD environment although the basics should apply to most operating systems. Virtual domains are touched upon briefly, but Postfix - virtual domains contains more information about the three different types of virtual domains and is recommended reading for anyone contemplating implementation.

Postfix is an MTA designed to be a replacement for sendmail as well as being fast, secure, and easy to configure. Why was it designed to replace sendmail? Easy. sendmail is a very widely used MTA with a quite complex configuration. It also handles most of the mail on the Internet not to mention the many private networks around the world.

I have been running Postfix on some of my mail servers since August 2001. At least, that's when I think I first installed Postfix on this web server, which also doubles as a mail server. I've been happy with it mostly because I've been able to easily configure my virtual domains (i.e. handle mail for multiple domains) and block mail from certain sources. Postfix is now my MTA of choice.

In this article, I will outline how to install Postfix and how to configure it to accept mail from more then one domain. I'm using virtual_mapping for my virtual domains. There are other ways to do virtual domains which are far more suitable for large scale operations. Search the newsgroup mailing.postfix.users for the phrase "Some notes on relay, local and virtual domains".

README

It will be useful to read and understand the Postfix Anatomy. That will help you to understand how virtual address mapping, aliases, etc relate to the various Postfix components. Postfix has many different parts, each with a very distinct function. By keeping the programs smaller and with very distinct separation of tasks, it it both easier to code and to secure the system.

And don't forget the Postfix FAQ.

Installation

I install just about everything using the ports tree.

cd /usr/ports/mail/postfix
make install
Right away you will be presented with the following choices. I wanted only PCRE because of my header checks. If you don't understand or need any of the optional components shown below, you can safely omit it without worry.
*--------------------- Postfix configuration options ---------------------*
|                                                                         |
| Please select desired options:                                          |
| *---------------------------------------------------------------------* |
| | [X] PCRE      Perl Compatible Regular Expressions                   | |
| | [ ] SASL      Cyrus SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer) | |
| | [ ] DB3       Berkeley DB3 (required if SASL also built with DB3)   | |
| | [ ] MySQL     MySQL map lookups                                     | |
| | [ ] PgSQL     PostgreSQL map lookups                                | |
| | [ ] OpenLDAP  OpenLDAP map lookups                                  | |
| | [ ] Test      SMTP/LMTP test server and generator                   | |
| | [ ] TLS       Secure Sockets Layer and Transport Layer Security     | |
| | [ ] IPv6      IPv6 support (not KAME official)                      | |
| |                                                                     | |
| |                                                                     | |
| |                                                                     | |
| |                                                                     | |
| |                                                                     | |
| |                                                                     | |
| |                                                                     | |
| *---------------------------------------------------------------------* |
*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*
|                         [  OK  ]       Cancel                           |
*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*
I was asked this question during the install:
Added group "postfix".
Added group "maildrop".
Added user "postfix".
You need user "postfix" added to group "mail".
Would you like me to add it [y]? y
Done.
As you can see, I said yes. I suggest you do the same. Then I was asked:
Would you like to activate Postfix in /etc/mail/mailer.conf [n]? y
For more information on mailer.conf, please read man 5 mailer.conf.

On my P233 box, it took about 10 or 15 minutes to compile the code.

During the install, you will see a couple of messages which you need to pay attention to (NOTE: The following is from Postfix 2.2.4,1) under FreeBSD 4.*:

If you have postfix configured in your /etc/mail/mailer.conf (answered yes to the previous question) and would like to enable postfix to start at boot time, please set these variables in your /etc/rc.conf file:

sendmail_enable="YES"
sendmail_flags="-bd"
sendmail_pidfile="/var/spool/postfix/pid/master.pid"
sendmail_procname="/usr/local/libexec/postfix/master"
sendmail_outbound_enable="NO"
sendmail_submit_enable="NO"
sendmail_msp_queue_enable="NO"


This will disable Sendmail completely.

The above was an install under 4.11. For a recent install of 6.0, the port told me to use use these settings instead:

# for postfix and not sendmail
postfix_enable="YES"
sendmail_enable="NO"
sendmail_submit_enable="NO"
sendmail_outbound_enable="NO"
sendmail_msp_queue_enable="NO"

For FreeBSD 7.0: sendmail_enable="NO" sendmail_submit_enable="NO" sendmail_outbound_enable="NO" sendmail_msp_queue_enable="NO"

In both FreeBSD 4.* and 6.*, the following applied. You may wish to disable some Sendmail-specific daily maintenance routines in your /etc/periodic.conf file:

daily_clean_hoststat_enable="NO"
daily_status_mail_rejects_enable="NO"
daily_status_include_submit_mailq="NO"
daily_submit_queuerun="NO"

I made those changes to my system as indicated above. I had to create /etc/periodic.conf. The first set of changes ensure your system operates Postfix and not sendmail. The second set of changes avoids this error in your daily run output message (these are emailed to you automatically by the system).

Mail in submit queue:
mailq: illegal option -- A
mailq: fatal: usage: mailq [options]
Configuration

Postfix has a very well laid out configuration page. I urge you to read http://www.postfix.org/basic.html before proceeding. Understanding the rest of this article involves reading that URL first.

The primary configuration file for Postfix is /usr/local/etc/postfix/main.cf. Unless otherwise mentioned, all settings are made in that file. There are many examples in that directory. My count was 36 sample-* files. The comments in main.cf make frequent reference to the example files.

Names used in this article

For the purposes of this article, we'll assume the hostname of the computer is gus.example.org (named after my cat). For those of you writing documentation for others, you should know that example.org is reserved for use in documentation.

How to not mess up when making changes

When making configuration changes, I suggest using the SOFT BOUNCE feature of Postfix. Please refer to main.cf for more information. It's the first setting in there. This will allow you to make mistakes without rejecting all incoming mail....

What domain to use in outbound mail

I didn't make any changes here. I left things as the default. You may use to experiment with that.

This is covered in What domain to use in outbound mail.

What domains to receive mail for

For my example, gus is a stand-alone box. It does not handle mail for anything other than itself. Therefore, the default setting is sufficient.

myorigin = $mydomain
This is covered in What domains to receive mail for.
Aliases

Aliases are documented under Postfix Configuration - Address Manipulation. The default setting is:

alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
On FreeBSD systems, the file is actually /etc/mail/aliases. Therefore you should change this setting to this:
alias_maps = hash:/etc/mail/aliases

After modifying an alias file, you should create the corresponding database file by issuing the following command:

/usr/local/sbin/postalias /etc/mail/aliases
That should be enough

With the above changes, I had enough to be able to send and receive mail on the box. But there's more. I want to create virtual domains and allow the box to handle mail for that too.

What domains to receive mail for

The official documentation for this section is What domains to receive mail for.

In this example, I will add two virtual domains to this box:

  • example.net
  • example.com
I changed the default mydestination setting to this value (all on one line!):
mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, /usr/local/etc/postfix/mydestination
In the file /usr/local/etc/postfix/mydestination, I added the following entries
example.net
example.com
Then I restarted Postfix so it would reread the configuration file:
/usr/local/sbin/postfix reload
I was then able to send test messages to both dan@example.net and dan@example.com. This was OK for my setup, but what if those are two different people? What you need then is virtual address mapping.
Virtual address mapping

The official documentation for this feature is Virtual address mapping.

Virtual address mapping will allow you to map an address in a virtual domain to a real address. For example, let's assume there are two people named Dan on this box. One has a login of dan and the other has a login dtm. What we want is for the address translations to occur:

virtual addressreal address
dan@example.netdan
dan@example.comdtm
To implement this in Postfix, we would add the following entry to the configuration file:
virtual_maps = hash:/usr/local/etc/postfix/virtual_maps
Then add this to the file /usr/local/etc/postfix/virtual_maps:
example.net         DOMAIN
dan@example.net     dan

example.com         DOMAIN
dan@example.com     dtm
It is very important to know that these destination addresses are actually @$mydomain, which in this case is example.org. If you actually wish to deliver to local users and not users in the given domain, then append @localhost to the names. For example:
dan@example.net     dan@localhost
dan@example.com     dtm@localhost
Similarly, you can also forward the message to people in other domains:
example.net         DOMAIN
dan@example.net     dan@example.info

example.com         DOMAIN
dan@example.com     dtm@example.biz

Anything can be used in place of DOMAIN; it is ignored. But using DOMAIN will emphasis to the reader that the line signifies the start of the domain. It also required for a Postfix-style virtual domain, which is what we are using here. See man 5 virtual for more information.

In this case, Postfix will accept the incoming mail and relay it to the mail servers for example.info and example.biz.

After creating your mapping file, you need to create the database file from which Postfix will look up the mappings:

/usr/local/sbin/postmap /usr/local/etc/postfix/virtual_maps
Then restart Postfix:
/usr/local/sbin/postfix reload
Virtual address mapping - yes, there's more!

In the above example, we put all of our virtual mappings into one file. If you have several domains, or many different virtual hosts, it might be useful to use multiple files. That's entirely optional.

For what it's worth, I actually put my mappings and aliases into another directory: /usr/local/etc/postfix-config/. For example, freebsddiary.org.aliases contains aliases, and freebsddiary.org.virtusertable contains virtual address mappings.

What clients to relay mail for

The official documentation for this is What clients to relay mail for.

By default, Postfix will relay mail for clients in authorized networks and in authorized domains.

The authorized networks setting is controlled by the mynetworks directive. The default is to authorize all clients in the IP subnetworks that the local machine is attached to. I just found this out the hard way. I just checked the mail server I run at home. It handles most of my outgoing mail and some incoming mail. I discovered it was an open relay for it's /24 on the public side. Don't worry, I just changed that.

WARNING! If your mail server is directly connected to a public network (e.g. the Internet), make sure you set mynetworks appropriately. If you do not, then by default, it will relay for all of that subnet. That means anyone, and I mean anyone, will be able to abuse your mail server.

Here is my setting for mynetworks:

mynetworks = 10.0.0.0/24 127.0.0.0/8
This means that anyone on my local subnet (10.0.0.0/24) and on the machine itself (127.0.0.0/8) can send outgoing mail through this host.

I discovered this problem with the following command:

/usr/local/sbin/postconf | grep mynetworks

The authorized domains setting is controlled by the relay_domains. The default setting automatically trusts hosts within the domains listed in the mydestination directive.

Notice when running mergemaster during system upgrade 14 November 2002

If you are upgrading your system using make world, then remember to be careful when it comes to upgrade /etc/mail/mailer.conf. If you aren't, then chances are when your system reboots into the upgrading OS, you'll be running Sendmail, not Postfix. Yes, I feel victim to this, just yesterday when I was upgrading from 4.6-STABLE to 4.7-STABLE. Luckily, if it can be called lucky, it was only my mail server here at home...

In case it is useful, here is my existing /etc/mail/mailer.conf:

#
# Execute the Postfix sendmail program, named /usr/local/sbin/sendmail
#
sendmail        /usr/local/sbin/sendmail
send-mail       /usr/local/sbin/sendmail
mailq           /usr/local/sbin/sendmail
newaliases      /usr/local/sbin/sendmail
Are you using logcheck/security?

If you are, you might want to add these entries to /usr/local/etc/logcheck.ignore:

postfix/cleanup.*: .*: message-id=<.*>
postfix/local.*: to=.*
postfix/pickup.*: .*: uid=0 from=<root>
postfix/qmgr.*: from=<.*>, size=.*, nrcpt=1 (queue active)
postfix/qmgr.*\(queue active\)
postfix/smtp.*: to=.*
postfix/smtp.*: connect to .*: Connection refused.*
postfix/smtp.*: connect to .*: Operation timed out.*
postfix/smtp.*: .*: to=<.*>, relay=.*[.*], .*
postfix/smtpd.*: disconnect from .*[.*]
postfix/smtpd.*: .*: client=.*[.*]
postfix/smtpd.*: connect from .*[.*]

For more information on logcheck:

What's an MTA? Many people would guess either Mail Transfer Agent or Mail Transport Agent. It can also mean Message Transfer Agent. Here are a few different definitions:

However, when dealing with SMTP, an MTA is a mail transport agent.

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