Things look quiet here. But I've been doing a lot of blogging at
dan.langille.org because I prefer WordPress now.
Not all my posts there are FreeBSD related.
I am in the midst of migrating The FreeBSD Diary over to WordPress
(and you can read about that here).
Once the migration is completed, I'll move the FreeBSD posts into the
new FreeBSD Diary website.
Setting up a FreeBSD IPSec Tunnel --- by John J. Rushford Jr7 June 2001
Recently I was approached by a friend that has a scanning and imaging
business focused on imaging legal documents for large law firms.
He has two offices one located in Denver Colorado and another in the
suburb of Broomfield Colorado. His goal was to establish networking
between these two offices so that Microsoft file sharing, print sharing
and network neighborhood browsing are fully functional between the
two offices at a reasonable cost. In addition, he wished to have a
web server and an email server to promote his business.
To meet his requirements, I chose high speed DSL connections to the
internet with the local phone company using their business class DSL
service. The business class DSL service is low cost, roughly $100.00
per month, and provides 5 leased public static IP addresses with
network bandwidth of 1 Mbits up and down.
For his two subnets, I chose two machines running FreeBSD 4.2-STABLE
as firewall gateway machines for the two private subnets being built.
In addition to the firewall functionality, the FreeBSD machines would
act as his web server, mail server, and as a Samba server (see
Figure 1). The gateway designated bsd1 would act as the
primary domain controller for Windows, primary WINS server, and Windows master browser
for the MS domain we shall call scanningcomp.
In the remainder of this document, bsd1 refers to the
FreeBSD 4.2 machine with the private IP address 192.168.1.254
and bsd2 refers to the FreeBSD 4.2 machine with the
private IP address 192.168.2.254. These private IP's are used to
configure all private subnet services. The public IP's are only
only used with external DNS registration and for connecting
the endpoints of the VPN. For purposes of this document, the public
IP addresses are 172.16.1.254 and 172.17.1.254.
DSL Internet connection Setup
The telephone company setup the DSL connections at both sites and
the domain name scanningcomp.com was registered with the
telephone company's primary and secondary DNS servers using
the leased static IP addresses. The Cisco DSL modems were
programmed in PPP mode using the instructions from the telephone
company and connected to the public network interface, rl0, on
both FreeBSD machines, bsd1 and bsd2. In the
/etc/rc.conf file, the leased static IP addresses and
netmask were configured and everything verified to insure proper
Microsoft networking setup
In order to facilitate Microsoft network browsing, file sharing, and
printer sharing between the two subnets, both FreeBSD machines
were loaded with Samba 2.0.7. The machines were not configured
to share any part of their disks but, only to provide network logins,
WINS services, and the synchronization of browse lists accross the
two subnets 192.168.1.0 and 192.168.2.0. bsd1 was configured as
the primary domain controller and as the WINS server for
both subnets. bsd2 was configured as the master browser
for its subnet and as a proxy WINS server with the
WINS server pointed at bsd1.
All the Windows PC's were configured to obtain their IP addresses
from bsd1 or bsd2 as appropriate using the DHCP
server loaded on the two FreeBSD machines. The DHCP
servers were configured only to run on the private network interfaces
and in addition to providing the IP address to a PC it also provides
the respective default route, the domain-name, the
domain-name-servers (which are bsd1 at 192.168.1.254
and bsd2 at 192.168.2.254), broadcast-address, and
bsd1 was configured to be the mail server for the domain with
the appropriate DNS MX record set in the telephone companies
DNS servers. Microsoft Outlook on all PC's is set to use
bsd1, 192.168.1.254, as the SMTP and POP3 server.
/usr/ports/mail/qpopper was loaded and configured on bsd1
Also, named was configured on both machines to provide DNS
services where forwarding to the telephone companies DNS servers is
used. Both bsd1 and bsd2 act as the primary DNS server
for 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa and 2.168.192.in-addr.arpa as well as
the domain name scanningcomp.com so that bsd1 may resolve
and allow mail relaying from the PC's. The Cw flag was set
in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf to scanningcomp.com and The
/etc/mail/sendmail.cw file was also set to scanningcomp.com.
Managing user ids and other servers is done with Webmin which is
loaded only on bsd1. The user id module on Webmin is
configured so that the smbpasswd is set along with the unix
password so that the two passwords are synchronized.
FreeBSD 4.2-STABLE kernel configuration
Both FreeBSD machines are configured as firewalls for their
respective subnets and are configured for IPSec required for the
IPSec tunnel. The relevant kernel configuration options
In enabling the firewall the following relevent options are set
in the /etc/rc.conf file:
defaultrouter="172.x.1.110" # assigned by the telephone company
FreeBSD 4.2-STABLE IPSec tunnel configuration
In order to provide for automatic IPSec key exchange between
the two FreeBSD machines, you must load the port
/usr/ports/security/racoon provide a configuration
file (/usr/local/etc/racoon/racoon.conf), key file
(/usr/local/etc/racoon/psk.txt), and start the
/usr/local/sbin/racoon daemon at boot time.
I found that I did not have to modify the default configuration
file so, I left /usr/local/etc/racoon.conf untouched.
I edited the key file, /usr/local/etc/racoon/psk.txt, and installed
my private encryption keys:
To automatically start racoon at boot time, I created the
/etc/rc.local startup script with the following:
# dhcp server
if [ -x /usr/local/sbin/dhcpd ]; then
echo -n "dhcpd "
/usr/local/sbin/dhcpd -cf /etc/dhcpd.conf rl1
# webmin server
if [ -x /etc/webmin/start ]; then
echo -n "webmin "
# racoon key exchange server
if [ -x /usr/local/sbin/racoon ]; then
echo -n "racoon "
/usr/local/sbin/racoon -f /usr/local/etc/racoon/racoon.conf
To make the IPSec tunnel connection and to add the route
between the two private subnets, I wrote the following shell
script and installed it at /usr/local/etc/rc.d/tunnel.sh
WARNING: The shell script shown here has been formatted
for this web page, click
download this script:
It is important to note that the endpoints of this tunnel are
192.168.1.254 and 192.168.2.254. No broadcast traffic may be
passed between the subnets. This was important in that when
configuring Samba, you have to use the IP address of the Samba
server and you may not use the broadcast IP address for things
I hope that this web page proves useful to those that read it.
I believe that I have been complete and that there are no
errors or omissions. If you find any errors, omissions or
mistakes, please let me know so that I may update this page